SMT Perspectives and Prospects: In Search of Wisdom

After two-year COVID-19 hiatus, I made a point to attend the Berkshire Hathaway (BH) shareholders annual meeting in person, so I could listen to legend Warren Buffett and observe the dynamic of the aspiring people from all walks of life.

The event was full of high-spirited, eager attendees; and was quite festive as well. Buffet, now age 91, and his long-time business partner Charlie Munger, age 98, are as sharp, quick-witted, and as humorous as ever. Their deep and profound thought processes and broad-based knowledge are inspiring. It was a completely worthy trip, and I personally felt intellectually nourished. Their investment wisdom is vividly manifested by the indisputably phenomenal results: From 1964–2021, S&P 500 overall gained marks at 30,209%. In comparison, the Berkshire Hathaway overall gain reached 3,641,613%1.

The most intriguing part of the event was the Q&A session. The five-hour session offered myriad insights and learning opportunities. Questions from the shareholders (both in person and remotely) touched on a wide array of topics and scattered all over the map, from investment to life, from nuclear war to the energy industry, and from public company board practice to cryptocurrency. Below are select excerpts, which I believe are of interest to our industry readers.

Invest in Yourself
In this unprecedentedly uncertain time, as we face rampant inflation with a draconian increase in the cost of goods and services in our daily lives, not to mention the geopolitical tensions, it is understandable and fitting to search for advice or wisdom.

Notably, there was a recurring question citing the current economic and political environments. Although the questions were articulated in different ways, in essence, it was to ask for advice on where to invest and how to succeed in life in this day and age.

Thoughts from Warren Buffett:

  • “Invest in yourself to reap rewards even when inflation bites.”
  • “The abilities you have can’t be taken away from you. They can’t actually be inflated away from you. The best investment, by far, is anything that helps develops yourself, and it’s not taxed at all.”

Thoughts from Charlie Munger:

  • “The best thing you can do is to be exceptionally good at something.”
  • “You want to be the best at what you do: Be the best engineer, the best doctor, the best dancer.”

“Investing in yourself” to relentlessly get better is truly enduring advice to all of us.

Investment, Market Moves, and Cash
Munger quipped, “Cash is oxygen!”

Both Buffett and Munger believe one should always retain a certain amount of cash. In business, when the economy stumbles, an adequate level of cash sustains the business through the tough times, such as the major recent economic fallouts in 2000, 2008, and 2020.

They agreed that BH is holding too much cash lately ($146.2 billion as of January 2022, as opposed to their pre-set desired amount of $30 billion). Buffett attributed this large cash holding to the lack of appealing and justifiable businesses to acquire or to invest in. Buffett self-claims being a bargain-hunter. In his Annual Letter, he called himself “your bargain-hunting chairman.”

Munger shared his sentiments:

  • “Investment does not take high IQ, just a good attitude.”
  • “Market is crazy, but I made more money because of crazy gambling in the market.”
  • “It’s a gambling parlor.”
  • “I find speculative bets obscene.”
  • “I never made a decision (to buy or sell) by looking at the market moves, not timing the market.”

To the Aspiring
A college student “won the lottery” by getting to ask a question. She introduced herself and stated this was her fifth time attending the BH annual meeting. Buffett took it to heart, and heartily commended her. About 80 years ago, at the age of 11, he bought his first stock by using all his savings of $114.

After her introduction, she asked for advice on how to achieve happiness and success. Buffett advised:

  • “Nobody can take away your talents.”
  • “Find people you can trust.”
  • “Keep learning.”

Munger’s advice: “Find out what you are not good at and avoid all of them.”

Multidiscipline
The statement, “If you only know one discipline, it’s like a hammer looks at everything as a nail.” To me, that tells it all.

Life
Munger amusingly said:

  • “Easy to get wrong. Easy to over-do an idea.”
  • “You would be a better person in your second half of life than your first half, so I would like to be judged by the second half of my life.”

That Moment
A voracious reader, Buffett mentioned he tried to read all the books in the library when he was a young man. One day, he picked up a book telling him everything he was doing was wrong.

“Suddenly, I was looking at things differently,” he said. “It happens only a few times in life; things are just re-arranged with new insights.”

The pair showed a picture that looks like a duck; and when you give another glance it looks like a rabbit. Indeed, those epiphany moments are to be cherished and can be life-changing.

Teaching
Buffett stated that he has taught for almost 70 years (which I did not know), enjoying working with students of all ages and finally having retired from that pursuit in 2018 (at age of 87). In his annual letter to shareholders, he wrote: “Teaching, like writing, has helped me develop and clarify my own thoughts.”

Munger calls this phenomenon “the orangutan effect.” He said, “If you sit down with an orangutan and carefully explain one of your cherished ideas, you may leave behind a puzzled primate, but you will exit thinking more clearly.”

How true! Having engaged in teaching professional development courses for the workforce’s continuing education for over three decades, I vividly and wholeheartedly appreciate the above statements, and enjoyed Munger’s witty humor.

Energy industry
Munger believes in the oil and gas industry, saying in part, “…the United States should produce more.” Buffet said, “We should be very happy that we can produce 11 million barrels a day, or something of the sort, in the United States, rather than being able to produce none and having to find 11 million barrels a day somewhere else in the world.”

Munger further cracked, “In this regard, nobody shares my view; it does not bother me because they are all wrong.”

Nuclear War
The powerful duo expressed no knowledge or opinions about it, but quoted Albert Einstein: “I do not know with what weapons World War III will be fought, but World War IV will be fought with sticks and stones.”

Corporate Governance Issues
In recent years, the corporation’s stock-buyback has been on the corporate board agenda as well as a controversial political debate. Buffett says stock-buyback is a good thing for shareholders when it’s done at the right price and at the right time as it’s buying a known existing business, among other factors. From his annual letter to shareholders, he wrote, “When the price/value equation is right, this path is the easiest and most certain way for us to increase your wealth. Repurchases are modestly beneficial to the seller of the repurchased shares and to society as well.”

Buffett illustrated an example: In 1998, BH bought 150 million shares of American Express, which counted for 11.2% of American Express. As a result of American Express’s stock buyback program, BH owns 20% of AE in 2022. This is good for the investors.

Over the years, Buffet consistently expressed his experiences regarding the role of public company directors: “Many directors of public company boards are classified as independent directors, as required, but they are not independent in action.”

Having served on the board of publicly-traded companies (NYSE-, NASDAQ-, and TSX- listed companies), I strikingly echo his sentiments through my hands-on personal experiences and observations. Indeed, many corporate directors do not perform as independent directors, unfortunately.

GAAP
Buffett does not believe that the required GAAP accounting practice reflects a company’s intrinsic value. Evidently, he is not a fan of current GAAP rules that all corporations are using and prefers focusing on operating earnings. I also deeply share his views and wisdom in this regard.

Cryptocurrency
Both Buffett and Munger do not believe in cryptocurrency; they lauded China’s smarts in banning crypto. Munger lamented, “By saying this, 25% of the population would dislike us.”

Power Lunch
This year marks Buffett’s final Charity Auction Lunch. The lunch started in 2000 with a minimum bid of $25,000. The last lunch winning bid went for $4.6 million to cryptocurrency entrepreneur Justin Sun in 2019. This year’s lunch (after a two-year hiatus due to COVID) fetched a record winning bid of $19 million by an anonymous bidder (as of June 20), who will meet Buffett at New York City steakhouse Smith & Wollensky in the coming months.

Buffett and Munger are such a compelling duo who complement and synergize their intellect and compound their knowledge as in compound-interest. So admirable.

All in all, my attendance was time well-spent. More importantly, feeling intellectually nourished is a good feeling.

References

  1. Berkshire Hathaway Inc. Annual Report, 2021.

Appearances

Dr. Hwang will deliver a professional development course, “An Overview of PoP and BTC Package and Assembly: Material, Process and Reliability, Part 1 & Part 2,” Aug. 22 and 23, 8 to 11 p.m. EDT, at the 20th Electronic Packaging Convention, Asia, 2022.

This column originally appeared in the August 2022 issue of SMT007 Magazine.

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2022

SMT Perspectives and Prospects: In Search of Wisdom

08-10-2022

After two-year COVID-19 hiatus, I made a point to attend the Berkshire Hathaway (BH) shareholders annual meeting in person, so I could listen to legend Warren Buffett and observe the dynamic of the aspiring people from all walks of life. The event was full of high-spirited, eager attendees; it was quite festive as well. Buffet, now age 91, and his long-time business partner Charlie Munger, age 98, are as sharp, quick-witted, and as humorous as ever. Their deep and profound thought process and broad-based knowledge are inspiring. It was a completely worthy trip; I personally felt intellectually nourished. Their investment wisdom is vividly manifested by the indisputably phenomenal results.

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SMT Perspectives and Prospects: Critical Materials—A Compelling Case, Part 2

05-03-2022

When I wrote Part 1 on this topic in January, the global geopolitical landscape could be characterized as “status quo”—testy, challenging, yet absent of “war” in any region of the world. Now with Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, which elevates the peril and uncertainty of metals, minerals and materials into overdrive, the title of the article may warrant: “Critical Materials – A Precariously Escalated Compelling Case.”

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SMT Perspectives and Prospects: Critical Materials, A Compelling Case, Part 1

02-23-2022

It has come the time for a national strategy, in a deliberative and comprehensive manner, to address the critical materials/minerals. Doing so is increasingly critical to the long-term economy, national security, and the nation’s global competitiveness. With the handling of conflict minerals as an exemplar, there is perhaps an even more urgent need to rally another concerted effort to tackle the critical materials/minerals. Overall, critical materials/minerals will have an overarching impact on the entire supply chain to all industries, and once again, electronics/microelectronics is on the front line.

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2021

SMT Perspectives and Prospects: Reliability Primer—A Pragmatic SMT Perspective

10-18-2021

When we look at the reliability of a product, be it associated with a physical product or virtual service, there is a set of performance expected from the users or the customers.

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SMT Perspectives and Prospects: Digital Manufacturing—Just-in-Case or Just-in-Time

07-20-2021

Under the dynamic global-macro factors and the burgeoning digital manufacturing platforms, the construct that is solely based on just-in-time inventory management as a stand-alone practice could be proven inadequate. Considering both just-in-time and just-in-case appear to be a pragmatic model to operate in the digitized enterprise; perhaps a “comforting” approach as well.

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SMT Perspectives and Prospects: Ebullient Trade Events Going Virtual

02-04-2021

Jennie Hwang reflects on past and current versions of CES and IPC APEX EXPO, and outlines her two presentations at APEX.

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2020

SMT Perspectives and Prospects: Joint Industry Standard IPC J-STD-00-Electronic Solder Alloys, Part 2

10-01-2020

In Part 2 of her column series on requirements for electronic-grade solder alloys and fluxed and non-fluxed solid solders for electronic soldering applications, Jennie Hwang addresses questions raised regarding the subject industry standard IPC J-STD-006. She also summarizes relevant background information, the options for plausible naming systems, and the logic behind the decision to adopt the current naming system.

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SMT Perspectives and Prospects: Rethinking Manufacturing–Bracing for and Embracing a Post-Pandemic Decade

07-28-2020

Against the potent backdrop of current events, how should our industry respond? How should we manage and rethink manufacturing? And what are the main issues at hand in near-term and long-term horizons? Dr. Jennie Hwang explores these questions, as well as three tangible areas of business and manufacturing.

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SMT Perspectives and Prospects: Smart Factory Implementation—How Smart Is Smart Enough?

04-13-2020

As we are moving further into the Industry 4.0 era, rigidity is out, and flexibility is in; stiffness is out, and agility is in; and sluggishness is out, and swiftness is in. Dr. Jennie Hwang explains how manufacturing companies need to develop a thorough understanding of the available technologies that can be utilized to translate business objectives into business roadmaps targeting operational excellence to produce competitive, reliable, and economic products that perform in a timely fashion in the marketplace.

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SMT Perspectives and Prospects: Joint Industry Standard IPC J-STD-006—Electronic Solder Alloys

01-02-2020

It has been nearly two decades since the global electronics industry adopted lead-free conversion from leaded electronics. Readers who have been in the industry during this period will recognize the changes and challenges the industry has faced and appreciate the fact that taking the element lead (Pb) out of electronics has not been a straightforward path.

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2019

SMT Perspectives and Prospects—Revisiting Globalization: Technology, Jobs, Trade

11-21-2019

In 2004, Dr. Jennie Hwang wrote a column titled “Globalization: Technology, Jobs, Trade,” which was published in the July issue of SMT007 Magazine. Amid the protracted and roller-coaster trade uncertainty between the U.S. and China, and the renewed debate on globalization, she revisits the topic. What has changed over the last 15 years? Where do we stand today? Is globalization undergoing a retreat or reverse course?

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Learn From the Wise

07-12-2019

How can we get ahead in this digital world inundated with a gargantuan amount of information available to all? More sustainably, how can we stay ahead of the curve? Knowledge and wisdom are the fuel to propel us ahead; learning from the wise is the speedier path to acquire the fuel.

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The Role of Bismuth (Bi) in Electronics, Part 6

05-10-2019

In this installment of this column series on the role of bismuth (Bi) in electronic products, Dr. Jennie Hwang looks at the effects of Bi on the properties and performance of solder interconnections in electronic products when Bi is not contained in the solder alloy for the SMT assembly process (Bi-absent solder alloy composition of solder paste).

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The Role of Bismuth (Bi) in Electronics, Part 5

03-07-2019

The fifth part of this column series addresses the most interesting, yet intricate, aspect of the subject—plausible underlying operating mechanisms among the four elements (Sn, Ag, Cu, Bi) in a SnAgCuBi system. This article features illustrations on relative elemental dosages in relation to relevant properties and performance.

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2018

SMT Manufacturing: Why Soldering?

11-15-2018

Upcoming AI hardware requires advanced semiconductors, packaging approaches, new architectures, increased speeds and capabilities of inference processing, and system design and manufacturing prowess continually developed to reach the interconnect density. Against this backdrop, packaging and assembly levels will continue to be critical technology and serve as the backbone of manufacturing electronic hardware to deliver desired products with enhanced miniaturization, functionality, and augmented intelligence promptly.

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Artificial Intelligence: Super-Exciting, Ultra-Competitive

09-18-2018

Artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) have become common everyday words, however, the present reality and future potential are yet to evolve. This article looks into the key considerations and strategies to better leverage these trends that are expected to transform the manufacturing world.

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The Role of Bismuth (Bi) in Electronics, Part 3

08-08-2018

The third part of this column series aims to answer why SAC isn't able to become a universal interconnecting material for electronic circuits, and why a quaternary alloy system offer a more wholesome approach.

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The Role of Bismuth (Bi) in Electronics, Part 4

06-04-2018

Dr. Jennie Hwang's column series continues in Part 4, which addresses two pivotal questions: Why SAC is not able to be a universal interconnecting material for electronic circuits, and why a quaternary alloy system offers a more wholesome approach.

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New Year Resolutions and Best Wishes

03-12-2018

The New Year stands before us, like a chapter in a book, waiting to be written. We can help write that story by setting goals. But the true challenge is to keep these goals from falling into a wish list and to know how to stick to those goals and when. I hope that in this year to come, goals give us direction in whatever we do, be it on AI, 5G, mixed reality and quantum computing or the next chip design.

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2017

The Role of Bismuth (Bi) in Electronics, Part 2

12-08-2017

Part 2 of Dr. Jennie Hwang's article series outlines the Bi effects on 63Sn37Pb solder material, which have been substantiated by years of field performance prior to lead-free implementation. This should serve as the sound baseline for further discussion on the subject.

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The Role of Bismuth (Bi) in Electronics, Part 1

10-17-2017

In this column series about bismuth, Dr. Jennie Hwang starts with its elemental properties: where it is usually mined, its safety data, and application areas—in the chemical world, the metals industry, and electronics. She also writes about how bismuth compounds improve the performance some electronics devices, such as varistors.

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The Role of Bismuth (Bi) in Electronics: A Prelude

08-24-2017

When it comes to considering applications in electronics and microelectronics industry, over last three decades, the industry has shied away from using bismuth (Bi), at least not in standard practices in mass production. However, an interest has surfaced recently. This article series is tailored to electronics and microelectronics industry, to provide an overview in its entirety in the areas of importance to industry applications going forward.

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Do Acquisitions Bear Fruit? A Pragmatic Perspective

05-02-2017

Acquisition is an effective tool for a company’s growth as a part of corporate growth strategy; and it is one of the top fiduciary duties of a company board’s governance oversight. However, statistically, the acquisition failure rate is quite high. In her column this month, Dr. Jennie Hwang reflects on her hands-on experience as well as observations on mergers and acquisitions in the corporate world.

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2016

The Theory Behind Tin Whisker Phenomena, Part 5

11-23-2016

In this installment of the series on the theory behind tin whisker phenomena, Dr. Jennie Hwang completes the discussion of key processes likely engaged in tin whisker growth—crystal structure and defects.

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New Year Outlook: China’s Five Year Plan

01-25-2016

In this article, Dr. Jennie Hwang writes about the latest developments in the current global economic landscape, as well as mega-technological trends, which include: the highlights of macro-economy outlook, China factor, oil dynamics, cyber security, and grand challenges in technology and the path forward.

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2015

A Look at the Theory Behind Tin Whisker Phenomena, Part 3

11-05-2015

The third installation in Jennie Hwang's five-part series on tin whisker phenomena continues the discussion on key processes engaged in tin whisker growth. She discusses the energy of free surface, recrystallization, and the impact of solubility and external temperature on grain growth.

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The Theory Behind Tin Whisker Phenomena, Part 2

08-06-2015

In the second part of this article series, Dr. Jennie Hwang writes that a plausible theory of tin whisker growth can be postulated through deliberating the combination and confluence of several key metallurgical processes.

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The Theory Behind Tin Whisker Phenomena, Part 1

05-27-2015

In this first article of a five-part series, Dr. Jennie Hwang goes back to basics as she discusses the theory behind the tin whisker phenomena--the reasons and mechanisms behind its occurrence--as well as how tin whiskers can be mitigated in the plating process.

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New Year Outlook: What Can We Expect in 2015?

03-04-2015

Dr. Jennie Hwang takes a long view on market thrusts in the anticipated global economic landscape, as well as mega-technological trends in selected areas deemed timely and relevant to the industry: macro-economy, oil dynamics, China factor, cybersecurity, and grand challenges in technology and the path forward.

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2014

2014: Year-end Review

12-31-2014

In her latest column, Dr. Jennie S. Hwang reviews how predictions in her January 2014 column actually panned out. She goes through the key sub-topics that directly or indirectly impact the industry in terms of macroeconomics, business environment, technology, and the global marketplace. By and large her 2014 outlook was on or close to target.

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Tin Whiskers, Part 6, Preventive and Mitigating Measures: Strategy and Tactics

09-24-2014

In this installment of the tin whisker series, Dr. Jennie S. Hwang takes a look at the preventive and mitigating measures--the strategy and tactics. She says an effective strategy for prevention and mitigation starts with a good understanding of the causations of tin whiskers. A smorgasbord of material and technique options are offered as a guide to prevent or retard tin whiskers.

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Capsulization

08-06-2014

Since lead-free implementation, concerns about tin whiskers have intensified. For the past 12 years, studies and research by various laboratories and organizations have delivered burgeoning reports and papers, and Dr. Hwang has devoted an entire series to this subject. This article aims to capsulize the important areas of the subject.

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Tin Whiskers, Part 5: Impact of Testing Conditions

05-21-2014

Dr. Jennie S. Hwang says, "Real-life stresses may lead a different tin whisker behavior as in accelerated tests (temperature cycling, elevated temperature storage). The alloy-making process to achieve homogeneity needs to be taken into consideration. For an 'impurity' system, how the process that adds elements into tin could also affect the whisker propensity."

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Tin Whiskers, Part 4: Causes and Contributing Factors

03-26-2014

According to Columnist Dr. Jennie S. Hwang, nucleation and growth can be encouraged by stresses introduced during and after the plating process. The sources of these stresses includes residual stresses caused by electroplatin, additional stresses imposed after plating, the induced stresses by foreign elements, and thermally-induced stresses.

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New Year Outlook: What Can We Expect in 2014?

01-29-2014

In her latest column, Dr. Jennie Hwang takes a long view on market thrusts in the anticipated 2014 global economic landscape, as well as technological trends in selected areas important to the SMT industry. Readers, pay attention--her predictions for 2013 were extremely accurate.

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2013, A Year-End Review

01-09-2014

For this year-in-review column, Dr. Jennie S. Hwang checks on whether her January 2013 column, "Outlook for the New Year," is on or off target. She addresses the key sub-topics that directly or indirectly impact the industry in terms of business environment, technology, and global marketplace to see how her predictions actually panned out.

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2013

Tin Whiskers: Concerns & Potential Impact

11-26-2013

What is the biggest concern about the growth of tin whiskers? A simple answer is "uncertainty." If or when tin whiskering occurs, what are likely sources of uncertainty or potential adverse impact? Dr. Jennie Hwang explains that concerns and impact concerning tin whiskers primarily fall into one of four categories.

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Tin Whiskers: Phenomena and Observations

10-09-2013

Tin whisker reflects its coined name. It has long been recognized to be associated with electroplated tin coating and most likely occurs with pure tin. Its appearance resembles whiskers. However, whiskers can also form in a wide range of shapes and sizes, such as fibrous filament-like spiral, nodule, column, and mound.

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Cyber Security: From Boardroom to Factory Floor

08-21-2013

Cyber attacks are and will continue to be a huge concern to U.S. corporations in the foreseeable future. It's a matter of when, not if. It is not industry-specific and every company will have to deal with this challenge. The earlier preparation is made, the better a company is positioned to fend off the attack.

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SMT Perspectives and Prospects: Cyber Security - From Boardroom to Factory Floor

08-21-2013

Cyber attacks are and will continue to be a huge concern to U.S. corporations in the foreseeable future. It's a matter of when, not if. It is not industry-specific and every company will have to deal with this challenge. The earlier preparation is made, the better a company is positioned to fend off the attack.

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Tin Whiskers: Clarity First

06-11-2013

Lead-free solder comprises a wide array of alloy systems and each system can be modified in numerous ways. A test scheme to represent lead-free is a daunting task with an astounding price tag. Dr. Jennie Hwang advises that any tin whisker propensity study be conducted with a specific alloy composition, as clarity is the name of the game.

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SMT Perspectives and Prospects: Conflict Minerals: A Snapshot

04-03-2013

As the supply chain becomes increasingly complex and global, with an ever-increasing number of suppliers, full traceability of conflict minerals throughout the global supply chain is a daunting task. To comply with the SEC’s reporting and disclosure requirement, a company must formulate a comprehensive program to achieving traceability and transparency.

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SMT Perspectives and Prospects: SAC System, A Revisit

03-13-2013

In compliance with the RoHS Directive initiated by the EU and later deployed globally, SAC305 of SnAgCu (SAC) system has been used as a lead-free solder interconnection alloy for both second- and third-level interconnection since the implementation of lead-free electronics. After a 10-year run, Dr. Jennie Hwang takes a look at SAC305 for IC packages and PCB assembly.

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SMT Perspectives and Prospects: Outlook for the New Year

02-06-2013

After protracted high unemployment and lack of a speedy recovery in the U.S., and in the absence of clear solutions to the Eurozone's financial crisis and China's lower manufacturing activities in 2012, will the grim global economic outlook extend to 2013?

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SMT Perspectives and Prospects: 2012 Year-End Review

01-16-2013

Dr. Jennie S. Hwang compares the past year to predictions made in her January 2012 column, "What Can We Expect in 2012?" including business, technology, and global marketplace issues. She feels that, overall, 2012 was another intriguing year filled with both wanted and unwanted events.

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2012

SMT Perspectives and Prospects: Can Microstructure Indicate a Good Solder Joint? Part IV

11-27-2012

How does one examine solder joint microstructure? Is the microstructure important? This month, Dr. Jennie S. Hwang continues a series that addresses the practical aspects of solder joint microstructure and what it can tell us about solder joint reliability. The focus of this offering is the role of the phase diagram in microstructure.

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SMT Perspectives and Prospects: Can Microstructure Indicate a Good Solder Joint? Part III

11-06-2012

How does one examine solder joint microstructure? Is the microstructure important? This month, Dr. Jennie S. Hwang continues a series that addresses the practical aspects of solder joint microstructure and what it can tell us about solder joint reliability.

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SMT Perspectives and Prospects: Can Microstructure Indicate a Good Solder Joint? Part I

09-11-2012

How does one examine solder joint microstructure? Is the microstructure important? This month, Dr. Jennie S. Hwang begins a series that addresses the practical aspects of solder joint microstructure and what it can tell us about solder joint reliability.

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SMT Perspectives and Prospects: 100 Points on Lead-Free Performance and Reliability, Part 2

08-21-2012

In the final of a two-part series, Dr. Jennie S. Hwang takes a wide, sweeping look at the history, timeline, highlights, and future projections for lead-free manufacturing.

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2011

Reliability of Lead-Free System: Part II, The Role of Creep

10-26-2011

The degradation of a solder joint is inevitable. The solder joint intrinsic degradation process engages two scientific phenomena--fatigue and creep. In this article, industry expert Dr. Jennie S. Hwang continues her look at the reliability of the lead-free system with a closer examination of the latter.

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Reliability of Lead-Free System: Part I, Solder Joint Fatigue

09-14-2011

Industry expert Dr. Jennie S. Hwang continues her look at the reliability of the lead-free system this month with a closer examination of solder joint fatigue. Fatigue is one of the most likely culprits for material failure--regardless of metals, polymers or ceramics.

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